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Content

Here you find an overview of the eight parts of the book. Please click on a part heading to view the detailed structure of the corresponding part.

Part I

Fundamentals and Framework

1 Motivation

1.1 Software-Intensive Systems

1.2 Importance of Requirements Engineering

1.3 Embedding of Requirements Engineering in the Organisational Context

2 Requirements

2.1 The Term “Requirement”

2.2 Requirement Types

2.3 Problem vs. Solution

3 Continuous Requirements Engineering

3.1 Traditional Systems Analysis

3.2 Essential Systems Analysis

3.3 Requirements Engineering as an Early Development Phase

3.4 Shortcomings of Systems Analysis and Phase-Oriented Requirements Engineering

3.5 Continuous Requirements Engineering

4 The Requirements Engineering Framework

4.1 Goal of Requirements Engineering: Establishing a Vision in Context

4.2 Overview of the Framework

4.3 Four Context Facets

4.4 Three Core Activities

4.5 Two Cross-Sectional Activities

4.6 The Three Kinds of Requirements Artefacts

4.7 Overview of the Book

Part II

System Context

5 System and Context Boundaries

5.1 The Term “Context”

5.2 System Boundary

5.3 Context Boundary

5.4 Need to Document Context Aspects

6 Structuring the System Context

6.1 Structuring Principles

6.2 Four Context Facets and Three Types of Context Aspects

6.3 Relevant Context Aspects within the Four Context Facets

6.4 Different Roles of a Context Aspect

Recommended Literature for Part II

Part III

Requirements Artefacts

Part III.a Goals

7 Fundamentals of Goal Orientation

7.1 Motivation

7.2 The Term Goal”

7.3 AND/OR Goal Decomposition

7.4 Goal Dependencies

7.5 Identifying Goal Dependencies

8 Documenting Goals

8.1 A Template for Documenting Goals

8.2 Seven Rules for Documenting Goals

8.3 Goal Modelling Languages and Methods

8.4 Documenting Goals Using AND/OR Trees and AND/OR Graphs

8.5 i* (i-Star)

8.6 KAOS

8.7 Deciding Which Goal Modelling Language to Use

Recommended Literature for Part III.a

Part III.b Scenarios

9 Fundamentals of Scenarios

9.1 Scenarios as Middle-Level Abstractions

9.2 Scenarios as a Means for Putting Requirements in Context

9.3 Developing Scenarios for Each Context Facet

10 Scenario Types

10.1 Current-State and Desired-State Scenarios

10.2 Positive and Negative Scenarios

10.3 Misuse Scenarios

10.4 Descriptive, Exploratory, and Explanatory Scenarios

10.5 Instance and Type Scenarios

10.6 System-Internal, Interaction, and Context Scenarios

10.7 Main Scenario, Alternative Scenarios, and Exception Scenarios

10.8 Use Cases: Grouping Scenarios

11 Documenting Scenarios

11.1 Narrative Scenarios

11.2 Structured Scenarios

11.3 A Reference Template for Use Cases

11.4 Eleven Rules for Documenting Scenarios

11.5 Sequence Diagrams

11.6 Activity Diagrams

11.7 Use Case Diagrams

11.8 Use of the Different Scenario Types in the Requirements Engineering Process

12 Benefits of Using Goals and Scenarios

12.1 Benefits of Goal Orientation

12.2 Benefits of Using Scenarios

12.3 Benefits of Goal–Scenario–Coupling

Recommended Literature for Part III.b

Part III.c Solution-Oriented Requirements

13 Fundamentals

13.1 Three Perspectives on a Solution

13.2 Solution-Oriented Requirements, Goals, and Scenarios

14 Documenting Solution-Oriented Requirements

14.1 Documenting Requirements in the Data Perspective

14.2 Documenting Requirements in the Functional Perspective

14.3 Documenting Requirements in the Behavioural Perspective

14.4 Documenting Quality Requirements in the Three Perspectives

15 Integration of the Three Perspectives

15.1 Extended Example

15.2 Relationships between the Perspectives

15.3 Integration Using UML 2

15.4 Integration Using SysML

Recommended Literature for Part III.c

Part IV

Core Activities

Part IV.a Documentation

16 Fundamentals of Requirements Documentation

16.1 Motivation and Aims

16.2 Documentation vs. Specification

16.3 Quality Criteria for Requirements Artefacts

16.4 Acceptance Criteria

17 Natural Language Documentation

17.1 Natural Language Requirements

17.2 Requirements Documents

17.3 Quality Criteria for Requirements Documents

17.4 Use of Natural Language: Advantages and Disadvantages

17.5 Techniques for Avoiding Ambiguity

18 Structuring Natural Language Requirements

18.1 Reference Structures for Requirements Documents

18.2 Defining Attributes for Requirements

18.3 Requirements Attributes

18.4 Templates and Information Models

18.5 Establishing Views on Textual Requirements

19 Fundamentals of Conceptual Modelling

19.1 Physical vs. Conceptual Models

19.2 Model Properties

19.3 Semiotics of Conceptual Models

19.4 Quality of Conceptual Models

19.5 Modelling Languages

19.6 Model Creation and Model Interpretation

20 Interrelation of Model-Based and Textual Requirements

20.1 Requirements Models

20.2 Interrelating Requirements Models and Textual Requirements

20.3 Traceability Meta-models

20.4 Relationships between Conceptual Models and Textual Requirements

20.5 Technical Realisation

Recommended Literature for Part IV.a

Part IV.b Elicitation

21 Fundamentals of Requirements Elicitation

21.1 Goal of Requirements Elicitation

21.2 Requirements Elicitation: Definition

21.3 Use of Goals and Scenarios in Requirements Elicitation

21.4 Sub-activity: Identifying Relevant Requirement Sources

21.5 Sub-activity: Eliciting Existing Requirements

21.6 Sub-activity: Developing New and Innovative Requirements

22 Elicitation Techniques

22.1 Evaluation of the Techniques

22.2 Template for Describing the Techniques

22.3 Interview

22.4 Workshop

22.5 Focus Groups

22.6 Observation

22.7 Questionnaires

22.8 Perspective-Based Reading

23 Assistance Techniques for Elicitation

23.1 Evaluation of the Techniques

23.2 Brainstorming

23.3 Prototyping

23.4 KJ Method

23.5 Mind Mapping

23.6 Elicitation Checklists

Recommended Literature for Part IV.b

Part IV.c Negotiation

24 Fundamentals of Requirements Negotiation

24.1 Goal of Requirements Negotiation

24.2 Requirements Negotiation: Definition

24.3 Use of Goals and Scenarios in Requirements Negotiation

25 Conflict Management

25.1 Sub-activity: Identifying Conflicts

25.2 Sub-activity: Analysing Conflicts

25.3 Sub-activity: Resolving Conflicts

25.4 Sub-activity: Documenting Conflict Resolutions

26 Negotiation Techniques

26.1 The Win–Win Approach

26.2 Interaction Matrix

Recommended Literature for Part IV.c

Part V

Validation

27 Fundamentals of Requirements Validation

27.1 Motivation and Goals

27.2 Validation vs. Verification

27.3 Sub-activity: Validating the Created Requirements Artefacts

27.4 Sub-activity: Validating the Consideration of the Context

27.5 Sub-activity: Validating the Execution of Activities

27.7 Goals and Scenarios in Validation

27.8 Principles of Validation

28 Validation Techniques

28.1 Inspections

28.2 Desk-Checks

28.3 Walkthroughs

28.4 Comparison: Inspections, Desk-Checks, and Walkthroughs

28.5 Validation Using Prototypes

29 Assistance Techniques for Validation

29.1 Validation Checklists

29.2 Perspective-Based Reading

29.3 Creation of Artefacts

Recommended Literature for Part V

Part VI

Management

30 Fundamentals of Requirements Management

30.1 Goals of the Management Activity

30.2 Definition

30.3 Managing Requirements Artefacts

30.4 Observing the System Context

30.5 Managing the Requirements Engineering Activities

31 Requirements Traceability

31.1 Fundamentals of Traceability

31.2 Pre- and Post-traceability of Requirements

31.3 Traceability Relationship Types

31.4 Documenting Traceability Relationships

31.5 Presentation of Traceability Information

31.6 Project-Specific Traceability

32 Prioritising Requirements

32.1 Fundamentals of Requirements Prioritisation

32.2 Preparation Activities for Prioritisation

32.3 Techniques for Requirements Prioritisation

33 Change Management for Requirements

33.1 Configuration Management

33.2 Requirements Changes

33.3 Systematic Change Management

Recommended Literature for Part VI

Part VII

COSMOD-RE: the Goal- and Scenario-Based RE Method

34 Fundamentals

34.1 Abstraction Layers

34.2 Co-development of Requirements and Architectural Artefacts

35 The COSMOD-RE Method

35.1 The Four COSMOD-RE Abstraction Layers

35.2 The Four COSMOD-RE Artefact Types

35.3 COSMOD-RE Co-design Processes

35.4 The Five Sub-processes of Each Co-design Process

36 Applying COSMOD-RE: an Example

36.1 Developing Initial Goals and Scenarios (SP1)

36.2 Developing an Initial Architecture (SP2)

36.3 Developing Component Goals and Scenarios (SP3)

36.4 Consolidating Requirements and Architectural Artefacts (SP4)

36.5 Specifying the Detailed System Requirements (SP5)

36.6 Summary

Part VIII

Software Product Lines and Requirements-Based Testing

37 Requirements Engineering for Software Product Lines

37.1 Core Concepts of Product Line Engineering

37.2 Challenges for Requirements Engineering in Software Product Line Engineering

37.3 Documenting Variability

37.4 Domain Requirements Engineering

37.5 Application Requirements Engineering

37.6 Summary

38 Requirements-Based Testing: the ScenTED Approach

38.1 Motivation

38.2 Main Concepts behind Testing

38.3 The Role of Scenarios in Testing

38.4 Requirements-Based Definition of Test Cases

38.5 The ScenTED Approach

38.6 Summary

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